The furniture of Ming and Qing style differences (Zhi Wen)

Song Young-gil

2018 years 05 months 15 days from 11:24: - People's Daily Overseas Edition

Figure 1: pear Ruyi stria chair

Figure 2: Rosewood inlay pastel porcelain figure chair seasons birds

The Imperial Palace Museum of Ming and Qing furniture more than 6000 pieces, is the largest collection of the Palace Museum in the world the number of furniture of the Ming and Qing dynasties. In May 18th this year, the South Bank of the Imperial Palace Museum Palace of the Qing Dynasty furniture museum will be officially opened, a large number of precious furniture will meet with the audience. This special edition of the Imperial Palace Museum furniture expert Song Yongji wrote, the Ming and Qing furniture style characteristics.


China ancient furniture has thousands of years of history, each era furniture has different characteristics, can reflect the aesthetic trend and technological level at that time. Because before the Ming Dynasty furniture wood wooden furniture, it is difficult to survive, we can only image from the tomb unearthed cultural relics and paintings, calligraphy and painting, the development of understanding of ancient furniture about.

We see today is the Ming and Qing Dynasties Furniture, the first from the Ming Dynasty rulers of furniture material requirements. Ming Yongle three years (1405) to Xuande eight years (1443) for the 28 years, he had seven Yuandu overseas. He put the Chinese producing porcelain, silk, and other crops abroad, the spices, precious stones, precious timber procurement back. These wood provides a suitable material for the production of high quality furniture.

Ming style furniture is the humanization of science, art, furniture, a furniture in the history of the development of China epoch-making significance. After the Ming Dynasty style furniture, and the emergence of Qing style furniture. From the Qing Dynasty to the mid Qing Dynasty nearly a hundred years, is the Ming Dynasty style furniture to Qing style furniture of the transition period, namely the period of Ming and qing.

The Manchu rulers clearly recognize that rule the world must grasp the Han culture. So when they are outside, constantly absorb the essence of Chinese culture. From the Kangxi period furniture, basically a continuation of the Ming Dynasty style furniture. The original carpentry workshop is the master line of Ming style furniture, difficult to have a big change.

Distinguish the furniture of the Ming and Qing Dynasty style furniture, not to the age limit, many of the early Qing Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty style furniture furniture. The characteristics of the Ming style furniture is simple, straightforward, simple, smooth lines. The Qing style furniture is dignified, magnificent, with the material, elaborate decoration etc..

The seat as an example. Ming style furniture in common with sitting chair, over four chairs, chairs, lamps hung South chair, chair, Fang Deng, Rose Garden Stool etc.. They generally have the characteristics of simple, smooth lines, side foot obvious contracture.

Such as pear Ruyi stria chair of Figure 1, to mark connected with the word "U" the circular chair circle, homeopathy rolled out to the handrail. 扶手与鹅脖夹角处,有云纹托角牙。 The backboard is a piece of material, it is based on the natural curve of human spine design into a "S" shape. The best volume grass grain relief on the back. The seat frame is inlaid in the middle of four corners to save, I heart. Under the surface of the pot (usually for k n) portal coupons mouth plate. The fourth leg side foot contracture, step by step between executives (CH ng) board foot. Seat ring, backrest, teeth and mouth coupons, and other lines and streamline the overall, gives a concise and elegant feeling.

Qing style furniture has a common sitting chair, chair, all kinds of machine (W connected) stool etc.. They are generally angular, tedious modification.

Figure 2 block diagram of porcelain flower four pastel rosewood chair backrest and armrest, is the seven screen, and with burl block pastel seasons birds map tiles. Take the brain raised high and back up roll book. The waist under the seat surface is flat burl. A bulge of the relief plate in the middle hall wa belly teeth. 4 legs Cheng in the same plane, and this is Qi Ping henchman, four flat pin cheng. The legs FRET horseshoe varus. This is the Yong Zheng period of Qing Dynasty furniture is a type of artifacts, Ming and Qing furniture coexist period.

By contrast, Ming and Qing style furniture, mainly in the following aspects: the first is material. Ming style furniture with yellow rosewood, lignumvitae, beech, and other wood species is relatively small. Qing style furniture with rosewood, mahogany, with a large number of inlaid furniture.

The second is the difference and variety of other. Many styles of Ming style furniture has been lost in the Qing style furniture. 如圆角柜是明式家具中常见的品种。 It is a soft corner, side foot contracture, legs open and close with velvet glove, door hinges. And use the material of Qing style cabinets, not straight side foot, top cabinet corners with hard angle. Making more rounded cabinets in Qing Dynasty, Qianlong for previous works, which belongs to the category of Ming style furniture.

In addition, many of the Qing style furniture in the production process, a blend of the emperor's thoughts. The emperor commands some artifacts, the Yangxin Temple Court made the office like a painting, Emperor Yu Lan proposed changes to the comments, and then by the creators to make sample, made by the emperor after james. After such a series of procedures, the item can be formed.

Qing style palace furniture quality, using a variety of materials and a variety of technology, and participate in the formulation of the emperor, has a high collection value.

(the author is the study of the Imperial Palace Museum Palace Museum deputy department)

(commissioning editor Zhang Guigui and Sun Hongli)